Humans (Homo sapiens), also known as Terrans, were a warp capable humanoid species from the Alpha Quadrant. The species originated from the planet Earth in the Sol system. Humans were the only surviving race of several sentient/intelligent species to have evolved from the Genus Homo. Humans were also one of two known spacefaring intelligent species to have originated from Earth; the other being the Voth, who had come to live in the Delta Quadrant by the 24th century.
As the Latin word for their homeworld was "Terra", Humans were sometimes referred to as "Terrans", but not always. (This usage was consistent in the mirror universe.) Occasionally the term Terran was used to distinguish Humans living on Earth from those resident on colonies on other planets and moons. Some people used the adjective "Terran" to refer to subjects or institutions associated with Humanity (Terran cuisine, Terran literature, Terran art, etc.). The Borg designation for Humans was Species 5618. (VOY: "Dark Frontier")
A founding member of the United Federation of Planets, Humans of Earth became warp capable in 2063, which was the same year they experienced first official contact with an alien species, the Vulcans. The first warp-drive was engaged on April 5th of that year by Zefram Cochrane. (Star Trek: First Contact; ENT: "Broken Bow", "Desert Crossing", "E²"; VOY: "Year of Hell", "Relativity", "Homestead")
By the 24th century, Human society had changed from what it was for most of recorded history. On Earth, hunger, war, disease, famine, and poverty had largely been eliminated. The acquisition of wealth was no longer the primary driving force in the lives of many Humans. A great deal of emphasis was placed on the importance of continued social and personal development. Thanks to the non-currency based New World Economy and the development of replicators, material needs were largely satisfied. Although money was no longer used by Humans within the Federation, they did use gold-pressed latinum and other forms of currency (such as Bajoran litas and credits) in places where it was still needed, such as Quark's. The idea behind not using money was that rather than seeking material possessions, Humans worked to better themselves and the rest of Humanity (see Human philosophy). (DS9: "Necessary Evil", "In the Cards"; Star Trek: First Contact) It must be noted that all of this more specifically applied to Humans within the Sol system, as many Earth colonies were known to have developed vast cultural differences from other Humans and some had even fallen into chaos, most notably Turkana IV. (TNG: "The Ensigns of Command", "Legacy")
These colonies were established by various Earth governments or United Earth and largely remained in close contact and dependence with and on Earth. Most of them were older than the United Federation of Planets itself.
Alpha Eridani II Deneva colony (Deneva) Earth Colony II Earth Colony 5 (Alpha V) Lunar colonies (Luna) Lunar One colony Orpheus Mining colony (possibly abandoned in 2154) Martian colonies (Mars) Martian Colony 3 Utopia colony Proxima colony (Alpha Centauri system) Terra Nova colony (Terra Nova, destroyed in 2083) Vega colony (Vega system)
Human settlements unaffiliated with Earth
Goro, a Native American of Amerind While achieving warp capability in 2063, there were Human populations on other planets prior to this. In these cases, they would usually have been brought there by alien species, who had traveled to Earth. For instance, Native Americans had been transplanted on Amerind by an unknown alien race called the Preservers some time in the 19th century. In 2268, they still lived as hunters and gatherers. Captain Kirk was adopted into one of the tribes of Amerind as the god Kirok. (TOS: "The Paradise Syndrome") In 2153, the NX class starship Enterprise, commanded by Captain Jonathan Archer, discovered a planet in the Delphic Expanse inhabited by 6,000 Humans whose ancestors were transplanted from the Ancient West during the late-nineteenth-century. (ENT: "North Star") The crew of the USS Voyager discovered, in 2371, another instance of Humans being kidnapped as slaves. Aliens from the Delta Quadrant, known as the Briori, abducted, in 1937, over three hundred other people (among which was Amelia Earhart whose disappearance was never explained) to be utilized as slave labor on one of their planets. The Voyager crew discovered Earhart and Noonan, along with six other Humans, in a state of suspended animation, the only abducted Humans who had been left in stasis. By this time, the Humans had long since overthrown their Briori masters, and their descendants had established a thriving community on the planet. Upon being revived by the Voyager crew, Earhart and the others, who had come to be known as "the 37's" by the Human colonists, were given the option of joining the crew on their long journey back to the Alpha Quadrant. Earhart and the others declined, however, and elected to remain on the planet with the other Human colonists. (VOY: "The 37's")
A Human anatomical diagram Bilaterally symmetrical bipedal primates, Humans were a warm-blooded humanoid species. (VOY: "Distant Origin"; ENT: "Azati Prime") They had two hands and two feet, each of which had five digits. The Human hand featured an opposable thumb and their fingers had multiple points of articulation. (VOY: "Distant Origin") The average Human life span had gradually increased during their history. At one point, it was only 35 years. (ENT: "Similitude") During the 22nd century it was about one hundred years. (ENT: "Observer Effect") In the 24th century, Humans were known to live as long as 137 years as well, (TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint") in the 23rd century, as long as 144 years. (Star Trek)
Humans evolved from the australopithecines. (TNG: "Genesis") Several related species of humanoids, including the Neanderthals, co-existed on Earth some thirty-five thousand years prior to the 22nd century. Evolutionary pressures led to the extinction of these other species. In the 22nd century, Humanity's closest living relative was the chimpanzee. (ENT: "Dear Doctor", "The Xindi")
They had two sexes, as was common to many humanoid species. (TNG: "The Outcast") The female of the species was fertile once a month after she reached puberty until the onset of a biochemical stage known as menopause. (TNG: "Manhunt") Human gestation was significantly longer than the Bajoran five months. (DS9: "Body Parts") The make-up of Human DNA structure was significant, as, with some modifications, it allowed them to crossbreed successfully with a wide range of other races across the galaxy, including Vulcans, Betazoids, and Klingons. (TOS: "Where No Man Has Gone Before"; TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint", "The Emissary"; VOY: "Caretaker", "Faces", "Lineage")
On average, Humans were not as physically strong as some species such as Klingons and Vulcans. (ENT: "Divergence"; TOS: "This Side of Paradise"; DS9: "Take Me Out to the Holosuite") They were, however, resilient in other ways. They were more adaptable to incarceration than Klingons. (DS9: "In Purgatory's Shadow", "By Inferno's Light", "Inquisition") They could survive with one lung or kidney, despite having two of these organs initially. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home; VOY: "Phage", "Fury", "Lineage") Humans could also go days without water and weeks without food due to their bodies' ability to conserve water and live off stored fat. (ENT: "Strange New World", "Shuttlepod One") Their bodies' efficient temperature regulation allowed them to resist and survive cold temperatures that would adversely affect other species such as Cardassians and Klingons or high temperatures that would be uncomfortable for an Andorian. (VOY: "Displaced"; ENT: "The Aenar") They also possessed more acute hearing than Cardassians. (DS9: "Distant Voices")
Humans were prone to strong, occasionally overwhelming emotions, such as love, hatred, embarrassment, and elation. (TOS: "Journey to Babel") Such feelings extended beyond sentient species. Many Humans anthropomorphized the lower lifeforms they kept as pets. Even fictional characters could elicit Human compassion. (ENT: "Dear Doctor")
Humans had iron-based hemoglobin in their blood. (TOS: "Obsession"; TAS: "The Pirates of Orion") Each individual's blood could be one of several blood types, which included AB-positive, O-negative, and B-negative. (ENT: "Carpenter Street"; DS9: "Broken Link", "In Purgatory's Shadow")
Humans were easily the most outworldly, idealistic, and expansionistic race in the United Federation of Planets, and possessed those qualities in a greater degree than many of the alien races they would encounter. Humans had no true specialty or extraordinary qualities and were average in both a technological and physical sense.
The Devore inspector Kashyk remarked that Human culture had many contradictions, violence and beauty, science and faith, all somehow mingled harmoniously, similar to the counterpoint of a musical composition. (VOY: "Counterpoint")
Because Humans were the Federation species most interested in space exploration, they made up a large majority of Starfleet. The fact that Starfleet was originally a pre-Federation Earth organization also contributed to the Human dominance of Starfleet. Humans also made up the majority of colonists on Federation colonies.
Human adaptability and their strong tradition of innovation and cooperation brought them to the forefront of the current Federation interstellar situation. It was for this very reason, however, that Human society was constantly changing and evolving. This was seen not only on the isolated colonies, where the past traditions brought by culturally and geographically homogeneous blocks of colonists compete with new cultural pragmatism demanded of frontier life, but also in the staid and settled core worlds as well. Fashion, speech, and especially political views were constantly changing.
For species that were steeped in tradition and genealogical reverence as the basis of their societies, the Human fascination with the novel experience and their unending desire to innovate and explore, to discover for the sake of discovery, were all difficult concepts to grasp.
Jazz music persisted into the 24th century and became a contribution to galactic culture, as did opera music. Humans played music collaboratively in a format known as "classical music."
Competitive sports from Human cultures also became part of Federation culture in various ways. Sports played in the 24th century included soccer (also known as "football"), fencing, and wrestling. Other Human sports included water polo, baseball, and hockey.
Humans expressed themselves through various art forms. One such art form was known as dance. (TNG: "Data's Day")
Human cuisine had a broad spectrum, and was shared widely with other cultures. Humans were omnivorous, unlike vegetarian Vulcan culture. A small sampling of Human dishes enjoyed by other species included pecan pie and chocolate. Human foods were often connected to a place, a language, or a family and were a part of a richer cultural experience, such as jambalaya and oden.
Human mating rituals sometimes involved a cultural ceremony known as a wedding to indicate a lasting commitment, as in other cultures such as Vulcan and Klingon.
Human culture evolved to eliminate war, poverty and disease by the year 2113.
In later centuries, Humans expanded on their desire to seek out new life by turning inward, demonstrating their abilities to create new life in their own image.
The stronger, more intelligent and physically resilient 20th century Augments may or may not have qualified as a separate species, but following his experience with Augments in the 22nd century, Dr. Arik Soong abandoned genetics for cybernetics. His work was continued and fulfilled by Dr. Noonian Soong, who created the sentient Soong-type androids, including Lore, B-4, Juliana Soong, the nearly perfect reproduction of his then comatose wife, and Data, the first android to be officially ruled by Federation law as sentient, and who proved capable of reproduction by creating his own daughter, Lal. (TOS: "Space Seed"; ENT: "The Augments"; TNG: "Datalore", "The Measure Of A Man", "Inheritance"; Star Trek Nemesis)
Humans also used holographic technology to sprout new sentient life, beginning with the first self-aware holographic character, James Moriarty in 2365. The work of Dr. Lewis Zimmerman on Emergency Medical Holograms birthed The Doctor, Humanity's most complex photonic lifeform developed in the later twenty-fourth century. (TNG: "Elementary, Dear Data"; VOY: "Caretaker")